Masters Candidates

Okwera Moses George

Okwera Moses George Nazario

Student short Biography:

Moses is a seasoned, motivated and professional Geologist specializing in exploration Geophysics and he is excellence in bring value to students and clients and fostering positive relation among co-worker. As ateaching Assistant in department of geology, University of Jubasince 2010, Moses has been in charge of teaching, Geological Field work, Seminars Supervisor, Hydro geophysical survey for groundwater and also as a wellsite geologist, formation evaluation expert in the oil Company (GPOC- South Sudan).

Moses tireless work in completing his lectures on time as well as focusing on the growth of the department, As a high valued academic staff, Moses has been granted scholarship for Master’s degree at the university of Nairobi in 2016 for his service in teaching and supervision of students.

He hopes to continue his track record to excellent leadership and communication in coming future.

Moses is a graduate from university of Juba in2009 with a degree in Geology and started working as teaching assistant in 2010 and as wellsite Geologist in Oil Company in 2013. In addition, Moses also spearheaded in hydrogeohysical survey for groundwater project with local and international NGO’s.

Currently In an Oil Company, Moses is in charge of formation evaluation during drilling, wireline logging operation and Supervision of Multiphase flow metering for well testing operation and managing day to day operation of the department.

Project Summary

Thesis/Project Title:  Groundwater Potential Assessment Using Remote Sensing,Geographical Information System and Electrical Resistivity Methods InCrystalline Terrainin Kapuri Area, Jubek State, South Sudan.

Thesis/Project Abstract:

This research project was carried out in Kapuri area of Lury County, Jubek state South Sudan; an area that is geologically underlain by crystalline basement rocks. Groundwater investigations in the crystalline rocks is quite challenging because the overall permeability of these rocks is usually very low. The groundwater is typically confined within the fractured and weathered zones. Therefore, the yields from wells tapping these formations may not, in most cases, be sufficient for exploitation. The study area is further compounded by additional problems in that no borehole has been drilled in this area, the previous groundwaterstudies are scanty, and they experiences high water demand due to resettlement of refugees returning from neighbouring countries.The main aim of the investigation was to evaluate earth’s subsurface geoelectric properties that might indicate suitable geological and/or structural aspects favourable for groundwater occurrence. This main objective was achieved through use of remote sensing data, application of Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and ground geophysical survey. As a first step, groundwater potential assessment was carried out using remote sensed data from Landsat ETM+8 and digital elevations from which thematic maps were derived using ArcGIS software. These thematic layers include lithology, geomorphology, Lineament density, DEM, slope, drainage density, Land Use Land Cover map. The individual thematic layer were assigned weightsfor the purpose of spatial analysis. On geophysical survey, electrical resistivity profiling using weaner configuration was carried out to delineate subsurface geological structures along 3 horizontal profileseach stretching over a distance of 1500 meters. The horizontal separation of the profiles was 500 metres. At each station, resistivity data was collected at three levels namely 15m, 35m and 45m below ground level. These profiles were plotted in Microsoft Excel and fractures along each profiles were identified. In addition, 192 vertical electrical soundings (VES) were performed using schlumberger array. These VES data were analysed using the Interpex IX1D computer software and the resistivity versus depth models for each location was estimated. This followed by construction of 2D profiles and 3D models using leapfrog software.

The GIS and remote sensing results revealed that Kapuri area is characterized by relatively good to moderate groundwater potential confined at the western part of LuryCounty. The results from geophysical survey indicate that the area is generally underlain by four geologic section which include top soil (sandy clay), moderately weathered, fractured and fresh basement. Moderately weathered material ranging from less than one meter to several meters in thickness separate the overburden from the underlying weathered and fractured bedrock, while the basal layer is comprised of compact and massive fresh basement. The fractured and the moderately weathered rock make up the aquiferous zone within the study area.

This work recommends that boreholes be drilled in areas that have been identified to have high groundwater potential. Additional works, is recommended using 2D and 3D resistivity tomography, with the aim of establishing highly fractured rock mass and therefore identify more

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MOENGA, David Nyamweya

MOENGA, David Nyamweya

Student Short Biography:

2015 – 2020: MSc. Analytical Chemistry – UoN

2005 – 2009: BSc. Industrial Chemistry – UoN

Sep 2013 to Date: Deputy Quality Assurance Manager at the National Quality Control Laboratory (NQCL) for Drugs and Medical Devises a Semi-autonomous institution under the Ministry of Health, charged with Coordinate and monitoring Internal Audits, Drawing up guidelines and ensuring implementation of Internal Audits procedures, Editing and structuring Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Maintenance of the Quality Management System in the laboratory.

June 2010 – Sep 2013: Pharmaceutical Analyst – Drug analysis both Assay and Dissolution of Tablets, capsules, injectable, suspensions and other formulations using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Titration, Friability, Disintegration, UV/Vis, Karl Fischer among others.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY FROM SELECTED BOREHOLES IN NAIVASHA SUB-COUNTY, NAKURU COUNTY.

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to assess the water quality of borehole water from Naivasha area in
the county of Nakuru. High fluoride levels and the economic activities surrounding the area have
raised a major concern over the quality of borehole water within the area. This study was
undertaken from June 2017 to September 2018. Water samples were taken from 7 different
boreholes namely: Matangi NNE (Karagita Area), Koinange Car Wash (Police Line Area),
Ushirika Water Project (Kayole Area), Shamba House (Kabati Area), Keroche Borehole (Karate
Area), Joywel School and a private borehole belonging to Geoffrey Kinyanjui. Each water
sample was tested for pH and electrical/specific conductivity using the pH/conductivity meter
(Model: Jenway 3540), turbidity using the bench top turbidimeter (Model: HACH TU 5200) ,
total suspended and dissolved solids (gravimetrically using dry filter papers and beakers), water
color using the color analyzer (Model: LUTRON RGB-1002), fluoride using the EXTECH ®
fluoride meter , chloride using the MOHR’s method with AgNO 3 standardized with M NaCl,
chlorine using the EXTECH ® chlorine meter, total hardness by complexometric titration with
EDTA standardized with CaCO 3 , alkalinity - acid-base titration with H 2 SO 4 standardized with
Na 2 CO 3 , manganese, cadmium, lead, copper, iron, chromium, sodium, potassium, zinc – using
the AAS (Model: Shimadzu AA-6300), with respective standards and hollow cathode lamps,
nitrates, sulfates – using the UV/Vis spectrophotometer (Model: Shimadzu UV-1800 ), and E-
coli – using the multiple tube fermentation technique (MTF). A comparison was made with the
East African Standard and the WHO drinking water guidelines. The results obtained were: pH
(7.03-8.45); electrical conductivity (412-1218 µS/cm); turbidity (0.095-0.355 NTU); total
suspended solids (1.93-48.00 mg/L); total dissolved solids (43-421 mg/L); water color (2-10
TCU); fluoride (1.20-5.00 mg/L); chloride (27.5-79.9 mg/L); chlorine (0.01-0.08 mg/L); sulfates
(154.88-263.88 mg/L); nitrates (6.04-9.94 mg/L); sodium (8.74-17.81 mg/L); potassium (11.80-
17.48 mg/L); alkalinity (168.62-511.35 mg/L); total hardness (28.6-85.78 mg/L as CaCO 3 );
manganese <0.01 mg/L; lead (0.0469-0.1962 mg/L); copper (0.1419-0.2139 mg/L); zinc
(0.0236-0.0374 mg/L); iron (0.0210-0.1369 mg/L); chromium and cadmium were not detected
and E-coli was found to be absent. The results were then compared with the East African
Standard and the WHO guidelines for drinking water. The study showed that the total suspended
solids, chlorine, fluoride and lead levels were higher than the WHO guideline values while the
rest of the parameters met the guideline values. Based on the East African Standard and the
WHO guidelines for drinking water, none of the sampled borehole water was suitable for
drinking purposes and therefore, there was need for some remediation before the water would be
safe for drinking.

OLOO, Sebastian Otieno

OLOO, Sebastian Otieno

Student Short Biography:

Oloo Sebastian (M.Sc. Analytical Chemistry) B.Sc. 2013, Kenyatta University. Sebastian’s current research interests lie in the areas of organic synthesis, computational studies and analytical instrumentation.  For his master’s thesis, Sebastian worked on an organic synthesis project that was multidisciplinary in nature encompassing the fields of computational chemistry, photocatalysis and analytical techniques. During his M.Sc project, he participated in a research exchange program, visiting the University of Ottawa for three months for part of his project work.  Sebastian aspires to further develop his research skills by pursuing a PhD program in one of his key areas of interest.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title: Solar Driven Photocatalytic Activity Of Porphyrin Sensitized Tio2 In Methylene Blue Degradation And Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Access to clean water and sustainable energy is increasingly becoming limited due to rapid population growth and industrial activities which are highly polluting and energy intensive. One approach that is currently being pursued to access clean water and generate energy is photocatalysis. A semiconductor that has been pursued for such application is TiO2. However, TiO2 is a wide bandgap semiconductor which suffers from poor activity or no activity at all in the visible spectrum limiting its use of solar radiation.  Several approaches have been employed with the aim of extending the absorption profile of TiO2. Among these is depositing porphyrins on TiO2 surface. Porphyrins have excellent absorption in the visible spectrum. The porphyrin-TiO2 (P- TiO2) photocatalysts can utilize a broader spectrum of the solar energy in photocatalysis. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of the P-TiO2 composites versus bare TiO2 were evaluated and the influence of metallated porphyrin over free base porphyrin in photosensitization of TiO2 for photocatalysis  established.  Meso-tetra (4-bromophenyl)porphyrin  and  meso-tetra (5-bromo-2- thienyl)porphyrin and their indium, zinc and gallium complexes were synthesized. The synthesized porphyrins were characterized using CHN elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were performed on the porphyrins to gain insight into their electron injection abilities. The calculations revealed the suitability of the porphyrins for electron injection based on the position of their lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals being higher than the TiO2 conduction band. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized porphyrins on TiO2 were investigated  by methylene blue  (MB,  a model  organic  waste) degradation  experiments  and hydrogen generation under irradiation by solar simulator. Metalloporphyrin-TiO2 systems showed better degradation efficiency than freebase porphyrin-TiO2 systems. However, in hydrogen generation, freebase porphyrin-TiO2 systems were better compared to the metalloporphyrin-TiO2 systems. This study showed the porphyrin-TiO2 systems had enhanced photocatalytic activity over bare TiO2 hence has potential application in degradation of organic pollutants in water as well as generation of hydrogen, a clean source of energy.

MUNGAI, James

MUNGAI, James

Student Short Biography:

James Mungai is a science scholar currently serving as the Head of Science Department in Thimbigua High School in Kiambaa sub-county, Kiambu County. He is also the Quality Control Manager at the NELFARM Company. Prior to joining Thimbigua school, Mr. Mungai held leadership roles as the head of Quality Assurance Head of Department at Karuri High school as well as teaching Chemistry and Physics and training Basketball as a Coach. He has also taught Mbuani Secondary school and Kangundo boys High school. An innovation enthusiast throughout his life, Mungai has played a big role in helping students in the Kenya Science and Engineering Fair. He enjoys spending time with his family and friends. A great basketball fan.  

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:Concentration Of Chlorothalonil And Lambda Cyhalothrin Pesticides Residue Levels In Vegetables Sold In Nairobi City Markets, Their Removal And Degradation Using Selected Standard Solutions

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Vegetables are very essential in almost all the meals served in Kenya and worldwide. Therefore their production is driven by high demands in the Kenyan and the world markets. This pushes the farmers in Kenya to consistently use and sometimes overuse the pesticides so as to produce high yield of vegetables to meet the high demands as well as to maintain the quantity of the vegetables in the markets. This leads to contamination of the vegetables and fruits. Use of pesticides must ensure public food safety as well as safeguard the environment with regard to the chemicals used and their harmful metabolites. The study aimed at determining chlorothalonil and lambda-cyhalothrin pesticides residue levels in spinach, kales and African nightshade sold in Nairobi city park market, effectiveness of washing methods for their removal and their degradation process in the washing solutions. The washing was done using tap water, 0.9% NaCl, 0.1% NaHCO3, 0.001% KMnO4, 0.1% H2O2 and 0.1% CH3COOH. Degradation process of the pesticides was studied by mixing known concentration of the pesticides with the washing solution at ratio of 1:9. The mixture were then subjected to different condition of shaking and settling for different time durations, and then extracted for analysis. UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used for analysis of the pesticide residue levels. The mean chlorothalonil residue levels in spinach, kales and african nightshade were 0.140 ±0.013 mg/kg, 0.100 ±0.007 mg/kg and 0.002 ±0.001 mg/kg respectively. These values were above the maximum residue limits (MRL) of 0.04 mg/kg allowed and also above allowed daily intake (ADI) of 0.02 mg/kg in spinach and kales. The mean lambda cyhalothrin residue levels were found to be 0.034 ±0.003 mg/kg and 0.030 ±0.002 mg/kg in spinach and kales respectively. The concentration of lambda cyhalothrin was below detection limits (BDL) in the african nightshade. The concentrations were below MRL of 0.1ppm and 0.2 in spinach and kales respectively but above ADI of 0.007 mg/kg. 0.001% KMnO4 was the most effective washing solution at 65.67 ±3.73% to 70.23 ±3.82% removal of chlorothalonil and 81.68 ±3.03% to 85.98 ±4.19% for lambda cyhalothrin in all the three vegetables analyzed. Tap water was the least effective pesticides remover, ranging from 10.23 ±2.00% to 11.43 ±0.21% for chlorothalonil and 42.34 ±2.47% to 48.43 ±1.91% removal of lambda cyhalothrin in the three vegetables analyzed. 0.001% KMnO4 gave the highest degradation rate of 86.63 ±0.02% to 89.01 ±1.03% for lambda cyhalothrin and 81.52 ±1.02 % to 84.08 ±1.78% chlorothalonil. Agitation increased the degradation of 0.9% NaCl which surpassed that of both 0.001% KMnO4 and 0.1% CH3COOH with a degradation of 92.57 ±0.99% of lambda cyhalothrin and 86.97 ±1.36% chlorothalonil after 20 minutes of shaking.

KHISA, Jackline Nangila

KHISA, Jackline Nangila

Student Short Biography:

Jackline Khisa (M.Sc. Chemistry), B.Sc. Kenyatta University 2015. Jackline’s current research interests lie in the areas of organic chemistry, chemical synthesis, medicinal chemistry and analytical instrumentation.  For her master’s thesis, Jackline worked on an organic synthesis project that focused on the development of new porphyrin based fluorescent dyes for use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT). Jackline aspires to further develop her research skills by pursuing a PhD program in one of her key areas of interest.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:Synthesis, Characterization And Photophysical Studies Of Novel Porphyrin-Based Compounds For Application In Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Pact)

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

There  are  a  number  of  techniques  employed  to  rid  microbial c ontaminants  from water.  The inefficacy of  some of  these methods  in  removing microorganisms  in contaminated  water, has resulted to increased incidences of water-borne diseases and emergence of antimicrobial resistance by disease causing pathogens. Therefore, there is need to develop new, efficient and convenient methods for combating microbial water contaminants as well as addressing the current problem of antimicrobial  resistance.   Photodynamic   antimicrobial  chemotherapy  (PACT)  is  one   of  the emerging green technologies for water treatment that uses the combined presence of light, oxygen and  suitable  photosensitizer  to  generate  a  reactive  oxygen  species  that  is  effective  against pathogenic microbial organisms. Porphyrins are by far one of the commonly used photosensitizers in PACT.  They  are stable, tend  to absorb in  the long  wavelength  region due  to  extended  π conjugation, and  have  specific  interactions  with  proteins  in  cell  membrane  of  bacterial  cells. Furthermore, upon irradiation with light of suitable wavelength, porphyrins can produce reactive oxygen species efficient in eradicating bacterial cells. In this study porphyrins were synthesized and their photophysical and antimicrobial activities were measured to determine their suitability in PACT. Free-base 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-bromophenyl) porphyrin (H2TBrPP) and 5,10,15,20- tetra(pyren-1-yl)porphyrin (H2TPyP)  were  synthesized  using  established  methods.  By inserting

zinc, gallium and indium to the free-base of H2TPyP  the corresponding metalloporphyrins were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were purified through column chromatography and characterized on  the  basis  of their  mass  spectrometry,  1H NMR  spectroscopy  and  elemental analysis. Metallation  of  the free  base  H2TPyP  to  form a metalloporphyrin  afforded  improved photophysical properties. There was a bathochromic shift in wavelength of absorption from the parent free base H2TPyP (λ = 431 nm) to metallated ZnTPyP (λ = 439 nm), GaClTPyP (λ = 440 nm) and InClTPyP (λ = 443 nm). The fluorescence quantum yield in H2TPyP was higher (ϕF  =

0.131) than in ZnTPyP (ϕF  = 0.039), GaClTPyP (ϕF  = 0.041) and InClTPyP (ϕF  = 0.017) due to efficient  intersystem  crossing  to  the  triplet  manifold.  Upon  illumination  of  the   synthesized compounds: H2TBrPP, H2TPyP, ZnTPyP and InClTPyP, effective dose dependent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was exhibited with IC50  values of 49.57, 27.89, 12.90 and

16.67 µM, respectively.

TULULA, Janet Nabwire

TULULA, Janet Nabwire

Student Short Biography:

Janet is a first-born girl in the family of 5 children, born in 1980 in western part of Kenya. She has a master’s degree in Climate Change Science and a Bachelors of Science degree in Forestry, with developed skills in research and capacity building in environmental and natural resource management and both QGIS and ARCGIS software that have been gained through training and experience. Janet has been working with the ministry of water, Sanitation and Irrigation as a land reclamation officer that deals with reclamation of degraded environments for 10 years. Currently working with the ministry of devolution and ASAL Development as a strategic programs officer that deals with unlocking the potential of ASAL Areas for food security and peace building in Kenya. Janet is a highly motivated person who performs her duties with a lot of diligence and is willing to work in a progressive and challenging position where hard work, commitment, initiative ability and integrity will have a valuable role to play in career development. She is flexible, progressive strong team player, analytical, confident individual with high ethical standards, strong interpersonal skills able to lead with determination to deliver; a fast learner with high energy and drive to meet expectations.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:Assessing The Adoption Of Rainwater Harvesting Technologies (Rwht) As A Coping Mechanism To Climate Variability In Kilifi County, Kenya

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Kilifi is categorized as a poor county with a high poverty level estimated at 71.7% and experiences food and water insecurity affecting approximately 67% of the households. Rain-fed and small-scale agriculture is a major source of revenue in the County and it offers employment to more than half of the total number of people in the County.

There exists seasonal water scarcity in Kilifi County. Droughts and floods occur frequently, thereby compromising productivity and food security in the county. This is expected to pose even greater challenges in the future, as future climate projections predict increasing drought and flood risk in the country. Furthermore, water demand for human, agricultural, and animal needs has been increasing due to population increase and an adaption action is therefore called for.

The general objective of this research was to assess the adoption of the existing RWHT as an adaptation to climate variability in Kilifi County.

Temperature and monthly rainfall data were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Filled in questionnaires from field surveys, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and key informant interviews also provided additional source of data. Questionnaires were issued out using simple random sampling, with a sample size of 385 households and 10 key informants from the seven sub-counties were interviewed. Data quality control was carried out using simple mass curve and time series analysis was done using Mann Kendall Trend Test to examine the trend in the temperature and rainfall data. Variability in the datasets was determined by working out the coefficient of variation in both rainfall and temperature data. Descriptive statistical analyses (using percentages) were used to assess the adoption of the existing rainwater harvesting technologies and determine the social economic factors that hinder rainwater harvesting. Determination of the significance of the factors that hinder the adoption of RWHT was done using Logistic regression model.

Analysis of the rainfall data showed that Kilifi County experiences bi-modal type of rainfall (AMJJ and OND) with a threshold average monthly rainfall of 87mm. Time series analysis of rainfall data showed variations that are not statistically significant. Analysis of  AMJ and  OND rainfall seasons using coefficient of variation  indicated  that  there  is  a  temporal  variation  of rainfall  with  drought  spells  from  year  to year although the trend was not statistically significant.

Time series analyses for rainfall showed a high degree of inter-annual variability. The study further showed an increased occurrence of rainfall that is below normal that may cause drought although the trend was statistically insignificant.

Time series analysis for temperature just as the global observation, maximum and minimum temperatures have increased in all seasons in Kilifi County.

From the findings, majority of the household surveyed (40.3%) obtain their water from springs as compared to other water sources. There is water scarcity in the county shown by longer distances (4-7km) travelled by most people in search for water. Findings on the adoption of the RWHT by the community in the County showed that 92.6% of households in Kilifi County practiced roof top water harvesting Technologies followed by water pans/ponds (3.5%). Majority of the people (93.5%) in Kilifi County are eager to organize and harvest more superficial water runoff.

Analysis on the significant of all the socio-economic aspects that affect the adoption of RWHT ,showed that distance from the existing water source to the household with the highest odds ratio of 7.203 affects the adoption of RWHT the most. Followed by education level of household respondent with an odds ratio of 5.909 and household income with an odds ratio of   5.257.

Analysis from Key Informants and FDGs indicates that some of the private development partners/ NGOs have played a vital role in helping households in reducing food and water insecurity as well as adapting to climate variability in the county by facilitating communities in construction of some water technologies.

These will inform the decision-making in policy development to enhance water and food security in the county

NTIRAMPEBA, Didace

NTIRAMPEBA, Didace

Student Short Biography:

Didace NTIRAMPEBA: Burundian, undergraduate  in University of Burundi, working in Ministry of Hydraulics, Energy, and Mine as Inspector of Mine and Quarry

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF ROCKS HOSTING NIOBIUM-TANTALUM, TIN AND TUNGSTEN BEARING MINERALS IN RUNYANKEZI AREA, NORTHERN BURUNDI

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Runyankezi area is located in the Northern part of Burundi in Kirundo and Ngozi provinces. It occurs in Meso- to- NeoproterozoicKararwe-Ankole belt that has huge mineral potential. The lack of knowledge regarding characteristics of 3Ts bearing rocks in Runyankezi and the genesis of their associated mineralizations was the base of the choice of this research. The main objective of this research was to investigate the geological context of the 3Ts-bearing lithologies and their related mineralizations as the petrogenesis of the 3Ts’ minerals in Runyankezi area in Northern part Burundi.  The tools used in this research included; Geological field observation for stratigraphy and micro-structure, geochemical, and rock sampling. Geological field observation revealed that all mineralization of 3Ts in the study area is from pegmatites. Petrography showed that principal minerals in rocks hosting 3Ts in Runyankezi are Li-rich tourmaline (Elbaite), Muscovite, Biotite with Zircon inclusion, Hornblende, Feldspars, sericite, and Quartz. Trace element (High Field Strength Elements and Large Ion Lithophile Elements) and rare-earth elemental analyses revealed that pegmatites with high mineralization are of LCT-Type and are far from the granitic intrusion. Their formation took place at low temperature and are evolved with Ta>Nb. These pegmatites occur in Buvyukana. In contrast, pegmatites with low concentration are of NYF-Type and are close to granitic intrusion. Those granites are not mantellic but crustal with high Rb concentration, the formation of derived pegmatites took place at high temperature, with Nb>Ta and are found in Nyanza-Burenge site.

WANYONYI, Stellamaris Amere

STELLAMARIS AMERE WANYONYI

Student Short Biography:

A dynamic and dedicated student with strong work ethic working towards a future career in climate finance. Able to work well on own initiative. Possesses excellent interpersonal, communication and negotiation skills with an ability to develop and maintain mutually beneficial relationships. Team player, quick learner who focused on high productivity and results.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:THE ACCEPTABILITY OF THE USE OF CARBON TAXES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN KENYA: A POLITICAL ECONOMY ASSESSMENT

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Sustainable economic growth in Kenya is threatened by her vulnerability to climate change. Incidentally, the major contributors to Gross Domestic Product growth in Kenya are also the highest greenhouse gas emitters. This calls to question the ability of current models to foster long-term prosperity and green growth to achieve Vision 2030. A policy that would put an appropriate price on carbon can therefore be considered as a viable solution to decouple emission growth from economic growth. Empirical research data for the same in various countries build the case for a well-designed carbon tax, the essence of which is to provide an incentive for the polluters themselves to find the best way to reduce emissions, rather than having a central authority determine how pollution reduction should be done. A political economy approach of analysis was taken to investigate the acceptability of a carbon tax introduction in Kenya within the existing regulatory and institutional framework for climate change mitigation. Extensive policy document review was conducted and structured interviews were performed to gather expert opinions on the carbon tax acceptability within the existing national circumstances of the country. A comprehensive stakeholder analysis was used to determine beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries and map out interests and influences that would determine successful implementation. A PESTELI (Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental, Legal and Industrial) framework analysis was used to draw out specific external factors that would influence policy uptake. It was found that hesitation in acceptability was derived from the lack of sufficient information available on policy operations and subsequent impacts both of which can be addressed by comprehensive impact analysis and full engagement of all stakeholders. Transparency of fiscal objectives the policy is aimed at achieving in the design and formulation stages is necessary to enhance acceptability. The perception of unfairness in the choice of taxation as a suitable carbon dioxide pollution regulator was mollified by the suggestion that revenue reimbursement will be earmarked to green spending. A mixed approach policy was recommended.

KUNDU, Bevin Nabai

KUNDU, Bevin Nabai

Short Student Biography:

Bevin Nabai Kundu is a Research scientist in Kenya industrial research and development institute(KIRDI) at the Research Technology and Innovation Department.  She is a Master of science holder in Environmental chemistry and also has a B.Sc. in Industrial chemistry (2004) both attained at the University of Nairobi

Currently she is under the Chemical Engineering Division offering technical and support services which entails coming up with research projects, collecting and analyzing of data,disseminating of research findings and preparation of reports.

She is also involved in Product Development and formulation which enables upgrading of entrepreneur’s products to achieve Kenya Bureau of Standards (KeBS) mark in the following technology areas; cosmetic technology, disinfectants and sanitizer technology, detergent technology and hair care technologies.

She is also involved intraining and capacity building for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) in the following technology areas; Soaps and detergents, Cosmetics, Feed formulation and Bioenergy (fuel gels, biodiesel).she has been involved inCommon manufacturing and business incubation support that involves routinely offering technical expertise and advisory services in product development / improvement, good manufacturing practice occupational health and safety and waste management.

Miss Kundu has over 10 years work experience in the research field and aspires to continue working in the Research field as her profession career as she believes this is one of the most transformative experiences in manufacturing and industries.

Project Summary

Thesis /Project Tittle:Evaluation of liquid Biofuels, Jatropha oil, and its blends with Kerosene as alternative fuel for lighting and cooking

Thesis/project Abstract:

Many economies in the world depend on non-renewable fossil fuels for their energy supply, whose economic benefit is in question. Kenya currently depends on imported petroleum to meet 75% of her commercial energy. The prices of the product are regulated by the market forces which is beyond the control of the country. Kerosene for instance is still being advocated as an alternative fuel for cooking, and as cheaper lighting source in lamps in slum areas and where electricity is not provided especially in urban towns. Further, the continual use of kerosene exacerbates both the environmental and human health through the emission of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming hence the need for an alternative cheap clean renewable source. This was achieved by determining the oil yield from Jatropha Curcas seeds from Tana River, Lamu county, preparing Kerosene Jatropha blends, evaluating the physiochemical properties of the blends, evaluating the burning and lighting performance of the best blends while testing for the emissions. The physio-chemical and thermal properties were determined using standard methods as per the Institute of Petroleum’s standards for petroleum and its products, this included kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, acid value, flash point, calorific value. The water boiling test was also performed and from this test the amount the energy output of the fuel blends was  determined. While the water boiling test was ongoing the amount of emissions from the fuel being used was also determined, these emissions were the particulate matter (P.M2.5) and the amount of carbon monoxide. Jatrophas Carcus oil was extracted from its seeds, it was blended with kerosene which was bought at an identified petrol station, the blends were made at different ratios and the best blends were found to be Blend 5, Blend 10 and Blend 20. A one wick kerosene lamp was used to determine the lighting effectiveness of the fuel blends, while a normal wick stove found in Kenya was used to perform the water boiling test. There was a significance difference among  all the three oil blend samples tested and the results obtained emphasized the use of optimum oil blends on normal stoves and the importance of using the stoves in well ventilated areas to decrease the amount of exposure from emissions.

OBONGO, Rael Akoth Kasera

OBONGO, Rael Akoth Kasera

Student Short Biography:

Obongo Rael Akoth Kasera is a research scientist at Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI) involved both in Research Technology and Innovation (RTI) and in Technology Transfer and Extension Services (TTES) for 13 years. She works in Laboratory Services Centre where she  heads Water and wastewater laboratory and is involved in supporting other researchers and SMEs by offering testing services in food and animal feeds, water and wastewater, oils, fuels, soil etc. As a research scientist in love with the environment, she has been involved in issues to do with cleaner production, sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment, climate change, energy conservation, water and air pollution as well as water quality and waste water treatment.  She is also involved in technology needs assessment, capacity building and technology transfer services as well as development and validation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). She has sat in various committees in the institute among them ISO, Safety Health and Environment(SHE),Kirdi Research Committee(KRC), Alcohol and drug abuse as well as National cohesion and integration committee. She is also involved in preparation of standards at National Standards body KEBS where she sits in the technical committee for soil quality. Prior to this she taught mathematics and Chemistry at Mary Leakey Girls high school having graduated from Kenyatta University with a degree in Bachelor of Education Science (Maths and Chemistry). As a teacher she participated in many activities like science conference, symposiums, maths and chemistry contests as well as SMASE (Strengthening of Mathematics and Science Education),a project of Japanese government  whose mission was to continuously develop competencies for sustainable development through STEM education. She also studied management course IMIS-UK (Institute for the Management of Information System) becoming a licentiate member.She has also been involved in seminars and trainings both in-house and external on ISO 9000; 2005-Quality Management Systems, ISO/IEC 17025-Testing and calibration laboratories, internal auditing for laboratories, kaizen (Continuous improvement), proposal writing among others.

Project Summary

Thesis/project Title; Determination of Effectiveness of Luffa Cylindrica as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals from wastewater

ABSTRACT

This piece of work reports the sorption properties of Luffa Cylindrica that have not been exploited and carbon from luffa to remove copper and chromium ions from aqueous solution. The effect of contact time, adsorbate concentration, particle size, pH, biomaterial dosage and Temperature was investigated. Particle size A (<425) gave the best adsorption values. Increase in concentration of metal ions resulted in decrease in % adsorption of the adsorbate, while increased pH values led to increase in % adsorption for both copper and chromium ions. Increased biomaterial loading also led to increased adsorption for both copper and chromium ions. Desorption studies were done with 0.1M concentrations of H2SO4, HCl and EDTA. It was noted that for copper, H2SO4 was the best followed by HCl and finally EDTA. Chromium on the other hand was best desorbed by EDTA but H2SO4 was still better than HCl. Luffa-metal ion bond and EDTA-metal ion bond played a significant role in the desorption capability of EDTA. The regenerated biomaterial was then subjected to another set of adsorption experiments to study the effect of concentration of the metal ion on adsorption and for both copper and Chromium, EDTA treated biomaterial gave higher adsorption percentages.  Luffa sponge was also carbonized and 0.5g, 0.75g and 1g portions of carbonized biomaterial was used to determine the effect of concentration of both Copper and  Chromium ions on their   adsorption onto the carbonized biomaterial. Carbonized biomaterial gave higher adsorption percentages than fresh Luffa.30ml portions of real effluent samples from KIRDI’S  leather division  was treated with 0.5g and 2g portions of fresh Luffa to determine its efficacy in removal of Chromium. 2g portions were able to remove over 92% of Chromium from the effluent.  Two adsorption isotherms were tested and Langmuir gave the best fit for chromium and copper, copper giving R2 value of 0.9570 and Chromium R2 value of 0.9728. qmax value, the monolayer adsorption capacity  for copper using fresh luffa was found to be 2.9753mg/g, and b the Langmuir constant was found to be 0.1933l/mg. qmax for Chromium was found to be 1.3466mg/g and b Langmuir constant was found to be 0.6639l/mg.This means Luffa Cylindrica has a higher affinity for copper than   chromium. The experimental data from carbonized biomaterial was also fitted to Langmuir isotherm. The R2 value for copper was found to be 0.9826 and qmax value of 5.4288mg/g, 1.8 times that of fresh luffa. R2 value for chromium with carbonized Luffa was found to be 0.9144 with qmax value of 2.3479mg/g which again is almost twice as much as that of fresh Luffa. Freundlich Isotherm gave R2 value 0.8194 for copper which was not close to unity so the data didn’t adhere to the isotherm. Chromium however gave gave R2 value of 0.9501with KF value of 0.5768 and n value of 3.367 indicating good adsorption. This study demonstrates that Luffa Cylindrica could provide a cheaper alternative for removing heavy metals from wastewater.

NYING'URO, Patricia Achieng'

NYING'URO, Patricia Achieng'

Student Short Biography:

Patricia Nying’uro is a Climate scientist with special focus on impacts of climate change on weather in Kenya working in the Climate Change Division of the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). She is a member of the GCRF-African SWIFT project as a researcher into subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) forecasts for Kenya. She is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) focal point for Kenya and a founding member of Climate Without Borders (CWB) a nonprofit organization spearheading climate change communication.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title:Investigating Impacts Of Climate Change On Aflatoxin Causing Fungi Aspergillus On Maize In Kenya

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

Climate Change is currently the bane of human existence. From impacting food resources to threatening international security by weakening national defenses, climate change has garnered the attention it rightfully deserves. Among the many anticipated changes, projected climate change will impact the agricultural sector and subsequently food security by influencing primary agricultural systems both directly by influencing yields and indirectly by impacting the safety of produced food. This study set out to investigate the effects of climate change on the distribution of the fungi causing aflatoxin – aspergillus- in maize in Kenya. This was achieved by first determining the spatiotemporal variability of past and future climate in Kenya, then determining the spatial distribution of aflatoxin under present climatic conditions and finally by simulating the effects of past and future climate on aflatoxin distribution using a species distribution model.

Past temperature and rainfall data was collected from Kenya Meteorological Department and passed through quality control. For future climate, Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) data was used. The data was extracted for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) namely RCP8.5 w/m2 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5 w/m2 (RCP 4.5). Graphical and statistical analyses were used and the results presented in tables and charts. The rainfall and temperature data at various timescales was subsequently used as predictors and input into MaxEnt a species distribution model. Temperature and rainfall analysis show that climate has been changing across the years under investigation and will continue to change. Trends of the two variables show a rise in temperatures and a decrease in rainfall over the entire country. Notably, the rate of change of night time temperature is higher than daytime temperatures and rainfall. The results from MaxEnt, show that the distribution is expected to increase geographically under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 by the year 2050. This study recommends development of robust adaptation options to cushion the country in the future against the negative impacts of climate change within the agricultural sector such as, development of risk maps for aspergillus occurrence that will give rise to aflatoxin and infect maize.

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KHAITSA, Susan Wasubire

KHAITSA, Susan Wasubire

Student Short Biography:

Khaitsa Susan Wasubire was born in 1966 to the Late Mr. Elidad Nephew Wasubire and Mrs. Luki Phyllis Wasubire, the 3rd born in a family of 14 children. She was raised in Mbale, Eastern Uganda at the foothills of Mt. Elgon. As a lover of nature and its vast resources, she observed the significant changes in her immediate environment of the Mt. Elgon Region. She took a very keen interest in the changing natural aspects of the natural environment where ever she went. This prompted a desire to investigate the causes, hence the pursuit of a masters in the science of climate change.

While pursuing Bachelor of Arts degree in Democracy and Development Studies with Uganda Martyrs University, Susan pursued a Diploma in Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change with the Center for Sustainable Development (CSD-i) CA, USA. Susan was sponsored by Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) for a cetificate in Environmental and Remote Sensing Data Analysis via Geospatial Technologies in Research and Teaching with Goethe-University of Frankfrut am Main/Phillipps University, Marburg, Germany. DAAD also sponsored her for a Master of Science in Climate Change with the University of Nairobi under the department of Meteorology where she attained amongst others exceptional skills and experience in Research, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, Modelling and Simulation for Climate Change.

She worked under ICSEA under Uganda Carbon Bureau as a Carbon Finance Specialist and as a Researcher with GAPLINK a Ugandan research and development organization. Currently Susan is working with Vision Multiple Services an organization promoting human sustainable development that creates self-reliant communities.

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title: Investigating Socio-Economic Impacts Of Sustainable Mountain Freshwater Ecosystem Services In Mt. Elgon Watersheds Under A Changing Climate

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

The Mt. Elgon watersheds are important freshwater catchment for rivers that provide water for all aspects of human livelihoods in the region. The increasing socio-economic drivers of climate change are impacting mountain freshwater ecosystem service provision in the watersheds. These have not been fully addressed, whereas degradation continues unchecked.

This study focused on investigating the socio-economic impacts of sustainable mountain freshwater ecosystem services in Mt.Elgon watersheds under a changing climate. The study used quantitative and qualitative data collecting tools. Livelihood was the independent variable, freshwater ecosystem services as the extraneous variable and climate change as the dependent variable, classified based on the view point of causation, stressing man’s role and responsibility.

Both primary and secondary data was collected. An intensive systematic evaluation of literature review on anthropogenic impacts on mountain freshwater ecosystem services was carried out to focus study, when carrying out unstructured interviews during field visits. Historical climate data for precipitation and discharge for the period 1960-2016 and 1948-2016, obtained from meteorological and water resources management government agencies of Kenya and Uganda was analysed for trend. Data for simulation modelling for opportunity cost and climate change impacts was provided with ecoengine model.

 Results from the study showed climate variability depicting upward and downward trends for climate and discharge data. Results depicted increasing population rates, demand for land for livelihood activities which has led to increased demand for freshwater ecosystem services. Potential impacts projected showed that with continued poor ecosystem and freshwater ecosystems management, freshwater ecosystem services are likely to be depleted affecting their sustainability. Results of the study confirmed that socio-economic activities are impacting sustainable mountain freshwater ecosystem services in the Mt. Elgon watersheds. These will inform decision making for policy development, economic planning, enhance environmental quality, hazard mitigation and conservation for sustainable freshwater resources and services.

ONGUSO, Benson Nyamboga

ONGUSO, Benson Nyamboga

Student Short Biography:

Mr. Benson Nyamboga Onguso is a geologist who believes that geology should have a human face and impact positively in societal needs. He specializes in seismology techniques that guide in to discovery of natural resources like petroleum apart from monitoring hazards, and has expertise in 3D refraction and reflection seismic modeling. Awarded the University of Nairobi Masters Scholarship 2011/2012 academic year, Mr. Onguso is currently working on research work, 3D volume (Voxel) rendering in seismology and short term crustal structure evolution studies on subsurface earthquake precursors’ delineation and characterization, to be published late 2021 or early 2022. He holds a geology degree from the University of Nairobi, where he is to earn a Master of Science degree in the field of geology on 25th September 2020.    

Project Summary

Thesis / Project  Title: Crustal Structure Evolution in Magadi Area, Kenya, Using 3D Seismic Tomography

Thesis / Project  Abstract:

3D seismic tomography model illustrated in form of 2D slices has been generated. Updated seismicity map for southern Kenya has been generated by location and relocation using tomo3d software of 1997-1998 seismic data and integration of crafti 2013-2014 seismic data sub-set. 3D model shows one high absolute velocity intrusive body within Magadi crust, 35.60 E to 36.20 E, 2.10 S to 1.70 S and depths of about 0 to 15 kilometers. Similarly, Roecker work has three high absolute velocity intrusive bodies and in contrast has about six small oval shaped pockets of low absolute velocity anomalies which possibly could represent small magma injections into country rocks from upper mantle repository. Surrounding high velocity zones, region with relatively constant absolute velocity which increases with depth is evident. This change in velocity with depth in this zone is thought to be associated with poor ray-paths coverage. It is evident that there exist high absolute velocity zones within Magadi through which small pockets of magma have intruded forming small hot magma chambers. These small magma chambers are fed by deep seated magma repository chamber. This repository chamber is located at bottom of Magadi crust. It extends to top of mantle layer. This supports fact that Magadi is undergoing continuous crustal structure changes through magmatic-tectonic movements. Faulting process occurring in this area has played key role in forming conduits through which magma moves upwards through Magadi crust. This study confirms continuous small crustal structure changes of Magadi basin through small magmatic intrusion and tectonism. 

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OLOO, Chrispine Moses Odera

OLOO, Chrispine Moses Odera

Student Short Biography:

Name:Chrispine Moses Odera Oloo, Msc. graduate UoN.

Author: Academic paper- Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies’

Goal:Scientific innovations through progressive research work.

Achievement: Published a paper before my graduation.

Project Summary

Thesis title:Comparative Sorption of Organic Dyes using XylocarpusMoluccensisAnd Rhizophora Mucronata Mangrove Species From Kenyan Coastal Region.

Abstract

Bark and stem samples from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata(RM) and Xylocarpusmoluccensis (XM); obtained from Kenyan coastal region, were investigated as potential low-cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) from wastewater mixtures. Adsorption efficacies of these adsorbents were compared for the two dyes and with literature values of recommended adsorbents. X. moluccenisisstem and stem-bark dye removal rate within the first 5 to 20 minutes increased from 75.9 ± 0.15% to 97.1 ± 0.15, and from 85.2 ± 0.16% to 96.7 ± 0.11% respectively while uptake increase from 85.2 ± 0.16% to 95.3 ± 0.20% and from 85.2 ± 0.47% to 95.3 ± 0.05% capacity was observed for R. mucronata stem and stem-bark. The optimum pH for the adsorption of CV and MG dye-was at pH 8 and pH 7 respectively. Significant equilibrium adsorption capacities, Qe (mg/g), with the stem-bark of the species giving highest capacities of 407.7 ± 0.03 mg/g for the adsorption of CV and 366.4 ± 0.07 mg/g, for MG dyes which translates up to 99.4 ± 0.15% dye removal. Equilibrium adsorption capacity increased with contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration but decreased with particle size, Ionic Strength and pH of the solution. Large correlation coefficient R2 values ranging from 0.7885 to 1.0000 noted implies adsorption occurred through monolayer formation for both species fitting Langmuir model while very low Freundlich constant, Kf ,values of the range of 0.5000 to 2.2000 were observed.  Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption follow pseudo-second order kinetics with the corresponding regression coefficient, R2, in the range of 0.8788 to 1.0000 and interparticle diffusion was a factor that controlled adsorption process onto the two species. The results displayed in this study have demonstrated the effectiveness of R. mucronata (RM) and X. moluccensis (XM), in removing organic dyes from their aqueous wastewater mixtures.